The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion, and relate the normative (clinician measured) orthodontic treatment need with the self-perceived oral esthetics, and the self-perceived psychosocial impact of dental esthetics in adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods
A stratified, random sample of 12-15-year-old students (405 male, 517 female) from governmental and private schools in the five main areas of the city of Riyadh has been selected for this cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was administered that measures: “Self-Perceived Esthetics” with 10 photographs of the Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ), and the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS). Malocclusion severity assessment has been carried out clinically using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). A validation of the Arabic translation of these indices was performed.
Among the sample, 27.1% presents with definite malocclusion, 15.4% with severe malocclusion, and 11.8% with very severe malocclusion. Adolescents in private schools had a mean DAI score that is statistically lower than those in government schools (P<0.001). Female adolescents presented with slightly more severe malocclusion, and reported less dissatisfaction with their occlusion than the males. A strong significant correlation was found between the PIDAQ and the OASIS scales (r=0.660), while the correlation between the DAI and the OASIS scores (r=0.245), and between the DAI scores and the PIDAQ scores (r=0.209) were weak but statistically significant.
About half of the studied adolescents present with definite to very severe malocclusion, and a weak but significant correlation exists between the clinically defined (normative) need of orthodontic treatment and the subjectivity of the adolescents’ self-perception of treatment need. There is a strong correlation between the two studied scales (PIDAQ) and (OASIS) that measure the individual perception of own occlusion.