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For the last 20 years, endodontic instrumentation has constantly evolved. New motions, new alloys, new techniques have been developed with always the same goal in mind: improve the quality of endodontic therapy. Recently, Files that are capable of addressing the three dimensional aspect of the anatomy were developped. This presentation will emphasize the aim of root canal instrumentation and describe and analyze the evolution, the current challenges and the future of endodontic instrumentation. Bioceramics were introduced to Endodontics in 1990s with the introduction of MTA. Twenty years of experimental and clinical research have shown superior properties for biocompatibility and sealing of this material making it the material of choice for many indications in endodontics. However it is quite difficult to handle and has the potential to discolor teeth. Recently, new bioceramic materials have been developed with fewer disadvantages. This presentation will discuss the use of bioceramic materials for vital pulp therapies, root canal obturation, perforations repairs and endodontic microsurgery.